Dry Eye Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors among Computer Users in Karachi, Pakistan


  • Naveed Mansoori
  • Nabeel Qamar
  • Syed Muhammad Mubeen




Dry eye syndrome, asthenopia, eyestrain, computer, call centers.


Objective: To assess the frequency of presence of dry eyes and its associated risk factors among employees working in call centres and software houses in Karachi.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was done during July to October 2014 at Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi. By convenient sampling  technique,  data  was  collected  from  employees  aged 20 to 40 years of call centres and software houses. Demographic information was recorded on pre-designed questionnaire and Schirmer's test strips were used to measure production of tears. De- scriptive analysis was done for categorical variables using SPSS  version  20.  Cross-tabulation  of  different variables was done with dryness of eyes experienced. The frequency of various eye complaints was determined and Chi square test was used to observe the association with Schirmer's test. P- value<0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Out of 150 employees 42 (28%) were found to have dry eyes. Mean age was 27 ± 3.5 years. The majority of employees  117  (78%)  were  males  and  77  (51.3%)  were  using  corrective  spectacles for refractive errors. The most common eye complaints  among  the  computer  users  were  burning  of  eyes (44%), redness of eye (41.3%), dryness  of  nose  (36%),  dryness  of  mouth  (34.7%),  discharge  from eye (10.7%) and foreign body sensation (10%). Statistically  significant  (p<0.05)  relationship  has been observed between presence of eye burning and positive Schirmer's test.

Conclusion: This study indicated that 28% of the individuals had dry eye, along with other symptoms of eyes among computer users in call centres and software houses.

Author Biographies

Naveed Mansoori

Department of Community Health Sciences, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, Karachi

Nabeel Qamar

Basic Sciences Department, College of Sciences & Health Profession (COSHP),King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz

Syed Muhammad Mubeen

Department of Community Health Sciences, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, Karachi