Assessment of Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Infants: A Cross-Sectional Survey Highlighting the Relationship of Vitamin D with Feeding Habits


  • Shujauddin Quazi
  • Jalaluddin Akbar
  • Syed Zafar Mehdi



Vitamin D levels, infants, feeding behavior, breast feeding, infant formula.


Objective: To know and assess the levels of Vitamin D in healthy infants without having the signs of  Vitamin D deficiency on radiological and clinical aspects.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried  out  at  Baqai  Medical  University  Hospital  Karachi. The sampling  technique  used  was  non-probability  consecutive.  Total  145  infants  were  included  in  this cross sectional study that were apparently healthy and  showed  no  features  of  Vitamin  D  defi-  ciency clinically and radiologically within the age of two to six month. Sample size calculated was 145. Infants on Vitamin D  supplementation,  with  renal,  hepatic  or  congenital  heart  disease,  gastrointesti-  nal problems, low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation were excluded from the study.

Results: The feeding habits were breast  feeding,  formula  feeding  and  mixed  feeding  as  62  (72.7%), 41 (28.3%) and 42 (29%) respectively. Vitamin D level were defined in three categories in which 57   (39.3%) were deficient, 39 (27%) were insufficient and 49 (33.8%) were found to be sufficient. Vitamin         D levels were compared with weight to know the significance. It was discovered that Vitamins D and   weight had a significant association with p-value of 0.02. There was no difference observed in length      and Vitamin D levels with a p-value of 0.155 and OFC (occipital-frontal circumference) and Vitamin D    levels with p-value of 0.491.

Conclusion: Frequency of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is quite common even in apparently healthy infants. The levels of Vitamin D in normal healthy infants of two to six month of age were defi-    cient. Furthermore, Vitamin D deficiency was related to the feeding habits of the infants. The infants           on breast feeding had sufficient Vitamin  D  levels  in  most  cases  whereas  it  was  deficient  in  formula and mixed feed of infants.

Author Biographies

Shujauddin Quazi

Department of Paediatrics, Baqai Medical University

Jalaluddin Akbar

Department of Paediatrics, Baqai Medical University

Syed Zafar Mehdi

Department of Paediatrics, Baqai Medical University